One of the biggest problem that most IT security experts around the world have is the fact that IT security is never taken seriously until a security incident takes place. After that, management boards start being interested in IT security. However, these managers see security not through the eyes of an expert, but through the eyes of a business man. They need to measure, to plan and probably most important of all, they need to know the costs. An easier way to talk security with management is to define security as a manager.
SMART is a mnemonic with many accepted meanings, but in this
article it stands for: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-oriented.
The term is coming originally from project management where it is used to set
objectives (called Key Performance Indicators – KPIs) and to track them. For
security specialists it is important to be able to set and track KPIs for the
goals they want to achieve when evaluating, designing, implementing security
solutions or when doing risk assessment.
Presenting SMART goals to a management board can make security goals be easier to understand and … to approve.
While on the first view these terms are overlapping, they are actually very tight interconnected and they are influencing each other.
Specific means that there is a need to have a dedicated goal
instead of a general goal when trying to define and implement security. Since
100% security (also called 360 degrees security ) is in reality never possible (which unfortunately
many sell and even more buy), it is very important to define security goals
that address a particular set of problems and not all possible problems. For example,
when defining the goals, the following have to be defined:
- what is to be secured
- against what is the
- what happens if the
security goals are not met (the risks against we try to provide security)
- who or what should provide
- in which way will be the
To have a measurable security goal or strategy, you need to
be able to answer the question: how will I know that I accomplished the goal?
If a goal is not measurable, it is probably not specific enough, or it is not
attainable, relevant or time oriented (see below the definitions – the terms are interconnected and
are influencing each other).
You need to define some metrics for the topics defined in
the scope so that you can measure and track their achievement. For example, if you plan the security of a web portal, you will know
that you achieved your goal of securing the web application if:
no unauthenticated user is
allowed to access the portal
a PEN test on the portal
shows zero vulnerabilities
your portal survives a DDoS
This term is probably the most complicated one to be
addressed because it requires a lot of experience in order to be done right. In
theory, everything is achievable, but in practice we all know that some goals
are more realistic than others. The most common constrains that can influence a security
goal can be the budget, time, resources, scope and many others. To make sure that
your goals are achievable, you should be able to answer the question: how
exactly can this goal be achieved? Or, do I have what I need to achieve this
It is not enough only to define goals (e.g. use defense in
depth), you need to be able to achieve them(the exact steps how to implement
this good security principle).
A security goal is relevant if it makes sense to be implemented
and if it really applies to your problem. This means that there is some value
which must be secured and that the cost of protecting it is less than the value
(positive ROI) to be protected. Easier said than done since you can’t easily
measure credibility, trust or market share – which usually have to suffer when a company has a security incident . You can’t secure everything, or
protect against any possible risk, so it is imperative to choose the goals that really matter (sorry for those who sell security policies). A security goal can have
all other attributes mentioned above, but it might lack relevance, so it is not worth to be
When you make risk assessment, you need to describe all
risks and make them measurable, so that you can assess how important they are.
So, measurability might help to determine if a goal is relevant (if it is worth
securing). A multi-layer security approach will help you to identify relevant
goals for the respective layer. If you partition, you can see the problems of a
layer easier than all the problems of the entire system. Relevancy should also
be searched in the solutions meant to achieve a security goal. For example, if you see a lot
of attacks on a certain open port which you know that nobody uses, it makes no sense to
install an application firewall to filter the access to that port if you can
simply close the port (hardening a system).
In security, we are always confronted with time. Time is
always critical, because if securing something takes too much time to
implement, it might be not worth securing it anymore (think of intellectual
property). If you were to secure a building, one thing is to close the door
with a key, and another thing is to take the time and do an extensive analysis
and then install expensive security systems, video surveillance, set a human guard,
etc. But, it might be that all you need is to close the door, because this
would solve the emergency. Time can make also a goal to become
irrelevant – if you can’t secure your web application until the first users register,
it might be too late after that (this doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t secure it
after that). It can also make a goal unachievable – some operations need time
to be implemented and if you don’t have that time, you can’t achieve your goal.
You goals are time-oriented if you can answer: When should
it start? When it should end?
(ISC)2 CSSLP, CompTIA Project+, Security+
via (ISC)2 Blog http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/isc2Blog/~3/fAx28ptFJeA/define-smart-it-security-goals.html
© Copyright 2013 Sorin Mustaca, All rights Reserved. Written For: Sorin Mustaca on Cybersecurity
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