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How-To: NIS2 EU Directive

The NIS2 Directive is a European Union legislative text on cybersecurity that supersedes the first NIS (Network and Information Security) Directive, adopted in July 2016. NIS vs. NIS2 While the first NIS (Network and Information Security) Directive increased the Member States’ cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has submitted a proposal to replace the NIS Directive and thereby strengthen the security requirements, address the security of supply chains, streamline reporting obligations, and introduce more stringent supervisory measures and stricter enforcement requirements, including harmonised sanctions across the EU. NIS2 strengthens security requirements in the EU by expanding the NIS scope to more sectors and entities, taking into account the security of supply chains, streamlining reporting obligations, introducing monitoring measures, introducing more stringent enforcement requirements, adding the concept of “management bodies” accountability within companies, and harmonizing and tightening sanctions in all Member States. To achieve the above mentioned goals, NIS2 requires member states to take a number of measures that forces them to work together: Establish or improve information sharing between member states and a common incident…

Secure Booting for Embedded Devices: Safeguarding Systems from Intrusions

This is the second article in the series about embedded devices security, started with Strengthening the Security of Embedded Devices Embedded devices are specialized computing systems designed to perform specific tasks or functions within a larger system. Unlike general-purpose computers, embedded devices are typically integrated into other devices or systems and are dedicated to carrying out a specific set of functions. They are often characterized by their compact size, low power consumption, and optimized performance for their intended application. No  wonder that embedded devices are becoming increasingly prevalent, powering a wide range of applications such as IoT devices, industrial control systems, and automotive systems. With their growing ubiquity, ensuring the security of these embedded devices has become a critical concern. Secure booting is a fundamental security mechanism designed to protect embedded devices from unauthorized access and tampering, playing a vital role in maintaining the integrity of the system. This article explores the concept of secure booting for embedded devices and highlights its significance in enhancing overall security. Understanding Secure Booting Secure booting is a security feature that establishes a chain of trust during the booting process of a computer and embedded devices. It ensures that only trusted and verified software…

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